The independent and combined effects of cognitive and affective variables on grammatical gender agreement in L2 French

Stephanie Côté (University of Toronto, Canada)

In an attempt to explain the variability often observed between second language (L2) learners of similar proficiencies, individual differences, including cognitive variables, (e.g., working memory [WM]), and affective variables, (e.g., foreign language anxiety [FLA]), are often cited. While previous studies have considered the effects of each of these factors individually, they have not considered the combined effects of both FLA and WM. Given that FLA may block attentional resources and diminish WM capacity (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994), the specific relationship between these two variables is of particular interest. The current study will examine the effects of FLA and WM capacity on grammatical gender agreement accuracy in the oral production of intermediate L2 French speakers. More anxious learners are predicted to demonstrate reduced agreement accuracy based on previous findings that FLA negatively affects oral competence more generally (e.g., Hewitt & Stephenson, 2012). We also predict that learners with lower WM capacity will be less accurate, and that this difference will be especially evident when adjective agreement occurs across clause boundaries (e.g., [une femme]NP [qui est nerveuse]CP ’a woman who is nervous’). More anxious learners are predicted to be less accurate than their peers with similar WM capacity, since anxiety may block WM. Twenty Anglophone intermediate French learners will complete a picture narration task. FLA and WM will be measured via the Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (Horwitz, Horwitz & Cope, 1986) and a reading span test (e.g., Waters & Caplan, 1996), respectively. Two main contributions will be made. First, while many previous studies have considered the effects of FLA on general L2 competence (most often measured via language course grades), our study will expand individual differences research by examining a specific structure (grammatical gender agreement). Second, it will investigate the relationship between FLA and WM, which has not yet been addressed.


The earlier, the better? Differences in socio-cognitive and affective factors between early and late Danish learners of EFL in a large-scale study.

Katalin Fenyvesi, Teresa Cadierno & Mikkel Hansen (SDU, Denmark)

The benefits of early starting EFL instruction are not well documented. The present questionnaire study therefore investigated the difference between first-graders’ (7 years) and third-graders’ (9 years) EFL learning in terms of socio-cognitive and affective factors: self-esteem, anxiety and growth mindset (e.g., Dweck, 2000) in a large sample (n=295) of young first-time Danish learners of English. Children completed the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) and the Test for Reception of Grammar (TROG) before and after one year of language instruction. Regarding the psychological characteristics of the two age-groups, results showed that on composite indices of five-point Likert scales, third-graders reported higher self-esteem (3,9) than first-graders (3,7). This resonnates with general findings in developmental psychology that younger children are more optimistic about their own abilities than older children. Relatedly, third-graders reported significantly more anxiety (3,0) than first-graders (2,6). Third-graders on the other hand had a growth mindset to a higher degree (4) than first-graders (3,7). Concerning EFL gains, self-esteem was related to higher language scores before instruction for third-graders (r=.3) but less so for first-graders (r=.15). Self-esteem was more strongly related to gains on the TROG for both grades (r=.26) than the PPVT. Having a growth mindset was related to higher language scores before any instruction in English (r=.2) for first-graders, but not third-graders. A growth mindset did not correlate with gains while were somewhat related to language scores one year later. (r=.18) for first-graders. Anxiety did not correlate with first-graders’ language scores, while it correlated negatively with third-graders’ PPVT and TROG scores (r=-.25), and further correlated negatively with their gains during one year of instruction (r=-.22), leaving third-graders with post-test language scores negatively correlated with anxiety (r=.4). For all correlations and difference-scores reported above: P<.05.

References:

Dweck, C. Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Psychology Press, 2000.


Using computer-mediated communication to reduce foreign language anxiety in L2 learners

Caitlin Gaffney & Stephanie Côté (University of Toronto, Canada)

Computer-mediated communication (CMC), a modality involving online conversation, is becoming increasingly popular in L2 classrooms due to hypotheses (e.g., Kern, 1995) that it benefits learning and reduces foreign language anxiety (FLA), which hinders acquisition (e.g., MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). Since a principal cause of FLA is speaking in front of others (e.g., Woodrow, 2006), one might expect that CMC reduces FLA since the computer creates a safe space between student peers and instructors (Bradley & Lomicka, 2000). Furthermore, CMC allows more time to process input and plan output, cognitive processes that are negatively affected by FLA (MacIntyre & Gardner, 1991). If CMC does reduce FLA, it may lead to increased quality and quantity of learner output, both of which are negatively influenced by FLA (e.g., MacIntyre & Gardner, 1994; Delaney, 2009). Surprisingly, previous studies failed to find support for the hypothesized effect of CMC on FLA (e.g., Baralt & Gurzynski-Weiss, 2011). The current study was designed to answer three questions: (1) Are beginner learners significantly less anxious in CMC or face-to-face (FTF) environments?; (2) Does either environment lead to greater quantity or quality of output?; (3) Do students prefer either CMC or FTF classrooms? Thirty students participated in two sessions (one CMC, one FTF), consisting of a vocabulary (food/beverages) and grammar lesson (present tense of verbs boire ’to drink’ and prendre ’to take/order’), and a picture narration task targeting the newly learned forms. Participants rated their anxiety following each session. Results showed that FLA was significantly lower during the CMC task than during the FTF task (F(1, 28)=17.241, p < 0.0003). Thirty additional learners will participate in a second round of testing, this time reversing the session order (i.e., CMC first, then FTF), so as to avoid task order effects. Participants’ narrations will then be evaluated for quantity and accuracy.


“Positive feelings about my work: I needed it!” – Emotions and emotion self-regulation in language teachers

Maria Giovanna Tassinari (Freie Universität Berlin, Germany) & Elena Gallo (Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, München, Germany)

Recently it has been recognised that teaching is not only a cognitive matter, but that teachers’ emotions also play a significant role in their lives. Indeed, the link between teachers’ emotions, their identities and their well-being has been identified as a key factor in their lives (Day & Lee 2011) and in their professional development (Golombek & Doran, 2014; Kubanyova, 2012). Although teachers’ well-being is essential for staying engaged in the profession, little empirical work has been done to investigate how teachers cope with the affective complexities of teaching. Expectations, interest, satisfaction, but also anxiety and frustration are often an unspoken part of a teacher’s everyday work. This may contribute to a teacher’s sense of isolation, an increasingly common emotional state emerging in the literature. By combining various instruments (self-reports, questionnaires, interviews, group discussion and teachers’ logs), this empirical research study investigates the emotions of language teachers in higher education and the strategies they use in order to self-regulate their emotional states in relation to teaching. Since emotions steer both cognition and courses of action (Immordino-Yang & Damasio, 2007), this study aims to understand what strengthens the agency of language teachers, how their resilience grows, and the implications for teacher education.

References

Day, C. & Lee, J.C. (2011). New Understandings of Teacher’s Work: Emotions and Educational Change. Dordrecht: Springer.

Golombek, P. & Doran, M. (2014). Unifying cognition, emotion, and activity in language teacher professional development.Teaching and Teacher Education 39 (2), 102–111.

Immordino-Yang, M.H & Damasio, A. (2007). We Feel, Therefore We Learn: The Relevance of Affective and Social Neuroscience to Education. Mind, Brain and Education, 1(1), 3–10.

Kubanyiova, M. (2012). Teacher Development in Action: Understanding Language Teachers’ Conceptual Change. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.


Shame and second language acquisition and use

Dominique Galmiche (University of Nottingham, School of English, United Kingdom)

There is sufficient evidence to support the idea that, for enduring L2 learning to take place, it is imperative that students feel comfortable and positive about their experiences (Gregersen & Horwitz, 2002; MacIntyre, 2002; Dörnyei, 2005, 2009; Dewaele, 2011). Negative and positive emotions coexist in the language classroom but, while positive and facilitative emotions have the ”power to broaden [learners’] field of attention” (Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2014, p. xiv), negative and pathogenic emotions may sap their self-esteem, confidence and perception of ability, eventually hampering their ultimate achievement. The objective of my research is to show that, among the negative emotions experienced by L2 learners, the largely neglected and under-researched self-conscious variable of shame can be regarded as a significant predictor of success or failure in L2 learning. To this end, I first explored the possible links between foreign language classroom shame and FLL achievement through French learners’ in-depth semi-structured interviews. The initial findings interestingly revealed that recurrent shame experiences in the foreign language classroom (FLCS) may direct learners to certain types of behaviours like avoiding interaction and speaking activities, ruminating over failure, or withdrawing from L2 learning, and lead to lasting L2-related anxiety due to fear of future shame-inducing situations. Among skills, speaking the target language was reported to be the most liable to elicit shame because of the likelihood of displaying an incompetent self to others. The participants’ thought-provoking remarks corroborate earlier studies (Cohen & Norst, 1989) which highlighted that the linguistic self and the global self are intimately interwoven, since teachers’ shaming comments and negative feedback may generate enduring feelings of general worthlessness, inadequacy and negative self-appraisal. I believe that acknowledging L2-related shame will help learners harness the negative and paralyzing power of shame in L2 learning.


NNES university instructors’ identity in the English-medium instruction context: A frames perspective

Yi-Ping Huang (National Chengchi University, Taiwan)

English-medium instruction (EMI) has become a growing phenomenon in higher education. Although the EMI studies have shed light on identity-practice relations (Tange, 2010) and conceptualization of teacher identity (Preisler, 2008; Soren, 2013), they may focus on hard science rather than soft science. In response to Neumann’s (2001) call for research on the influence of disciplinary difference on teaching practice (see also Kuteeva & Airey, 2014), this paper aims to reveal the complexity of teacher identity in soft science by drawing on partial data from an on-going project on university instructors’ construction of teacher identity and EMI practices. Participants were 8 nonnative English-speaking (NNES) university instructors in humanities and social science in Taiwan. Data were collected through individual interviews and card-sorting activities and analyzed through Constant Comparison Method (Lincoln & Guba, 1985). The initial categories and codes were then reorganized based on Pennington’s (2015) frames in TESOL and van Leeuween’s (2008) types of legitimization. The results showed that university instructors used four frames to self-position in the EMI context: personality frames attenuated the individual, vocational or ideal aspect of identity justified by moral evaluation; practice-related frames referred to the commitment to transmitting pedagogical content knowledge via English legitimatized by rewarding narrative; management-related frames referred to instructors’ roles and dilemmas in institutions justified by authorization; and profession-related frames stressed the importance of dissemination and transformation of knowledge in professional, local, and global contexts legitimatized by rationalization. Unlike the positive or negative self-images presented in Soren (2013) or Tange (2010), this study suggests an ambiguous attitude toward the use of EMI and hence diversity in content and frames of teacher identity in the EMI context. The frames perspective contributes to an understanding of teacher identity in response to internationalization of higher education and points out directions for future research, policy making, and pedagogy.


Emotions and agency among L2 teacher students

Tarja Nyman, Kati Kajander & Riikka Alanen (University of Jyvaskyla, Finland)

In L2 learning, the role of emotions and affective factors has been studied fro a number of perspectives in recent years, with the focus on, from the pedagogical perspective, how the teacher may best foster a learning environment that is emotionally supportive, for example (e.g. MacIntyre & Gregersen 2012). But teaching itself is a highly emotional profession. The role of emotions in teachers or teacher students has been investigated to an increasing degree in recent years (Hargreaves 1998, 2005; Zembylas 2005). According to the review of research by Sutton & Wheatley (2003), teachers’ emotions appear to mediate the teacher’s pedagogical thinking and self-efficacy beliefs, among other things. Yet relatively little is known how L2 teachers’ emotions mediate their agency. Agency is here defined as a process whereby the agent gains access and uses resources or tools to act on a goal. The data in the present study come from a larger data set from a longitudinal study following the university studies of L2 teacher students. The data come from five students, consisting of learner autobiographies, learning assignments and teaching philosophies written at various points of the students’ studies in education starting in year 1, and their language teacher portfolio, completed at the end of their pedagogical studies, mostly in year 4 or 5. The data therefore offer a comprehensive perspective on the development of the students’ pedagogical thinking. The contents of the texts have been analyzed qualitatively, paying attention to emotions and activities in which they are contextualized. The findings suggest that emotions appear to mediate not only the students’ use of resources but also their beliefs about themselves – their self-concept.


Teacher resilience in a period of transition: a case study of a language teacher trainer in a university context

Achilleas Kostoulas (University of Graz, Austria)

Despite increasing interest in teacher psychology, much empirical work to date has been fragmented, and has often tended to study psychological constructs and their behavioural manifestations in decontextualised ways. By contrast, the interconnections between psychological traits, and the ways in which they relate to the ecologies of language education are not yet well understood. This presentation reports on an instrumental case study that examined the psychology of a language teacher at a time of transition in her career from a holistic perspective, in order to develop an understanding how personality traits and affordances in her professional context interacted to produce psychological phenomena. Anna, the participant of this study, recently began working as a teacher trainer at a university, having worked previously for several years as a secondary school language teacher. By drawing on data from retrospective interviews, in which Anna reflected on her first semester as a university lecturer, I will show how she was able to adjust to the challenges of her new professional role by drawing on psychological traits (e.g., self-efficacy beliefs), and on contextual factors (e.g., peer support). It will be argued that the interplay of these factors led to the emergence of Anna’s resilience, defined as her ability to adjust to changing and potentially adverse circumstances. It will be further suggested that her resilience was mediated by aspects of her psychology; and that it was associated with the development of a strong academic identity. Using the findings of the study as a starting point, a contextual conceptualisation of resilience will be put forward, in which resilience will be described as a situated psychological construct that emerges from the transactions of individuals with their environment, and recursively influences their psychology.


Exploring the role of resilience in the first practicum of trainee ELT teachers

Anita Lämmerer (University of Graz, Austria)

Effective language teaching involves spreading enthusiasm to encourage learning, yet it is often accompanied by significant challenges, including disruptive learner behaviour, inadequate institutional support, and organisational uncertainty, all of which might contribute to high stress levels, generate conflict, and ultimately lead to unsatisfactory learning outcomes and potentially compromise the mental health of teachers. Against this background, the construct of teacher resilience, defined as the teachers’ ability to cope in the face of challenging circumstances, is gaining increasing theoretical and empirical currency. Current conceptualisations of resilience view it as a relational construct that connects psychological traits and contextual influences, but there is presently a dearth of empirical data examining how resilience is deployed in actual teaching. This presentation aims to add to our understanding of resilience by looking into how trainee English language teachers drew on their resilience to cope with the challenges of their first practicum. I will begin with a theoretical overview of the construct of resilience, which is used to frame the ensuing empirical discussion. Next, I will present a small-scale mixed-methods study that investigated resilience among undergraduate students in a teacher training course, and the way in which their resilience influenced their experiences of their first practicum. A questionnaire survey was used to establish the participants’ resilience levels, to probe whether resilience was associated with demographic factors, and to provide insights into possible latent traits associated with this psychological construct. Following that, the trainee teachers were interviewed regarding their practicum, and comparisons were made between the data provided by participants with differing levels of resilience. After presenting a selection of quantitative and qualitative data from the study, I will conclude by discussing implications for teacher education.


The eye of the beholder: A snapshot of multiple realities in a foreign language classroom

Irena Mestrovic Stajduhar (University of Rijeka, Croatia & Karl-Franzens University Graz, Austria)

With a growing emphasis on communication as a fundamental part of foreign language learning and instruction within the framework of contemporary communicative approaches, willingness to communicate (WTC) has become recognized as one of the key concepts in L2 pedagogy. While the early empirical investigations into WTC primarily considered learner-related factors, such as anxiety, communicative self-confidence, motivation, and perceived language proficiency (MacIntyre et al., 2001), more recent studies expanded the research focus by considering the ecological factors that shape the complex classroom reality. External, context-dependent factors that have been identified as relevant for students’ readiness or reluctance to speak include topic, task type, interlocutor(s), teacher, and classroom atmosphere (Peng, 2012). The rationale behind this diary study was to zoom in on the ways the learners’ perceptions of classroom events came together to construct the contextual mosaic of two EFL classroom sessions. Seven undergraduate English majors at a Croatian university kept a diary in which they revealed their observations and interpretations of what was happening in class, their feelings about those observations, and the ways in which those experiences may have contributed to promoting or inhibiting their WTC during the two sessions. While the diaries contained shared factual observations, this exploration focused on the seven co-existing realities based on the diversity of observed details and nuances, and the individual interpretations that motivated the participants’ behaviour. It is hoped that the insights from this study will contribute to raising awareness of the underlying richness of thoughts and emotions that can co-occur within a single session and shape the elaborate social context of a language classroom.

References

MacIntyre, P.D., Babin, P.A. & Clément, R. (1999). Willingness to communicate: Antecedents & consequences. Communication Quarterly, 47(2), 215-229.

Peng, J. E. (2012). Towards an ecological understanding of willingness to communicate in EFL classrooms in China. System, 40(2), 203-213.


Impact of gender on willingness to communicate, future visions, and effects of goal-setting

Yoko Munezane (Aoyama Gakuin University, Japan)

Studies on gender differences in Willingness to Communicate (WTC) and ideal L2 self (Dörnyei, 2005) have produced conflicting results. Some studies have found significant impact of gender on WTC (MacIntyre et al., 2003), whereas others (Alemi et al, 2013) found no impact. Similarly, Ryan (2009) found significant effect of gender on ideal L2 self, whereas Henry et al. (2013) found no significant effect. Research on gender differences in WTC and ideal L2 self are still scarce. No research has been conducted to explore the gender differences in either language-related future visions, or the effects of goal-setting on enhancing WTC. This presentation reports on an attempt to fill the gap by investigating (1) gender differences in WTC and ideal L2 self (2) gender differences in language-relate future visions, and (3) whether goal-setting treatments on enhancing WTC is equally effective for male and female participants. A group of 372 Japanese university EFL learners majoring in science and human arts subjects participated in the study. Based on the empirical study using structural equation modeling (Munezane, 2013), the visualization treatments were prepared for one group of students so learners could visualize their ideal selves and enhance WTC. For the second treatment, goal-setting activities were introduced to students (visualization plus goal-setting treatment). A MANOVA suggested higher WTC and higher ideal L2 self for female participants than their male counterparts. The qualitative analysis of participants’ future ideal selves suggested that females’ future visions include more interpersonal qualities compared to males’. The ANCOVA results suggested that the visualization plus goal-setting treatment group showed significant increase in WTC over the visualization only treatment group among male participants but not among female participants. Pedagogical implications and future directions for exploring gender differences are discussed, integrating the new studies in neuroscience field.


Willingness to communicate in L2 writing: An exploratory study of Japanese EFL learners’ writing development

Sachiko Nakao (Anaheim University, Japan)

Willingness to communicate (WTC) refers to a readiness to use the second language (L2) in a particular setting (MacIntyre and Doucette, 2010). Based on the heuristic model of WTC consisting of multiple layers of learner variables, MacIntyre, Clément, Dörnyei, and Noels (1998) assert that an examination of WTC provides L2 researchers with the opportunity to integrate psychological, linguistic, and communicative approaches, which have often been treated in an isolated manner. The exploratory study presented here evolved from the reexamination of data from a quasi-experimental study investigating the effects of different types of written corrective feedback (WCF) on L2 writing proficiency. The experiment was conducted over 10 weeks with 27 beginner adult Japanese learners of English, who were assigned to one of two treatment groups. They completed a weekly writing assignment, on which each group received a different type of WCF from the teacher. Regardless of the types of WCF, however, the amount of writing produced each week by certain students increased significantly over time. These students not only produced longer essays, but their writing improved as well. An analysis based on questionnaire responses found a relationship between participants’ WTC and their written production. They wanted to share with the teacher their everyday life events, thoughts, feelings, and concerns through the written texts. In other words, their WTC was the driving force behind their motivation to write, which as a result facilitated their L2 learning. Based on the findings, implications for L2 writing pedagogy in relation to WTC will be discussed.


Are they two sides of a coin? : Redefining the relationship of anxiety and self-efficacy in the Japanese EFL context

Michiko Ueki & Osamu Takeuchi (Kansai University, Japan)

In this presentation, we report on an exploratory study of the relationships among learner factors, such as anxiety, self-efficacy (SE), motivation, and procrastination in the Japanese EFL (English as a Foreign Language) context. It has often been said that anxiety and SE are two sides of a coin, and that they are closely related to motivated learning behavior (e.g., Ueki & Takeuchi, 2015; Woodrow, 2011). However, our observation in the Japanese EFL context suggests that higher SE does not necessarily mean lower anxiety, and that lower anxiety does not always indicate higher SE. The observation also suggests that these two individual characteristics are closely related to not only motivation but also procrastination, and that they can be good predictors for L2 proficiency. To better illustrate their relationships, we conducted a questionnaire survey on a total of 800 Japanese college EFL students. Our study assessed anxiety, SE, and procrastination (active and passive; Chu & Choi, 2005), together with motivation and L2 proficiency. Our results confirmed that: a) anxiety and SE were NOT necessarily two sides of a coin in this specific language learning context; b) four categories of students, i.e., high anxiety-high SE, high anxiety-low SE, low anxiety-high SE, and low anxiety-low SE, were found; and c) each category was differently connected to procrastination, motivation and L2 proficiency. These results render the data that could re-define the relationships among these learner characteristics, thereby providing us with implications for better educational interventions.

References

Chu, A.H.C., & Choi, J.N. (2005). Rethinking procrastination. Journal of Social Psychology, 145, 245-264.

Ueki, M., & Takeuchi, O. (2015). Study abroad and motivation to learn a second language: Exploring the possibility of the L2 Motivational Self System. Language Education & Technology, 52, 1-25.

Woodrow, L. (2011). College English writing affect: Self-efficacy and anxiety. System, 39, 510-522.


“I felt the need to hide how I felt”: Affect and agency in teacher narratives of conflict in an L2 classroom

Cynthia White (Massey University, New Zealand)

The concept of teacher agency has received relatively little attention in applied linguistics research, with teachers being seen more in relation to learners than as ”agents in their own right” (Kalaja, Barcelos, Aro and Ruohotie-Lyhty 2015: 14). Furthermore, despite ample anecdotal evidence that language instruction tends to generate a range of affective experiences for all participants, we have as yet relatively little situated understanding of teacher emotion, agency and agentive practices as interactional phenomena. Drawing on Ahearn’s (2010) notion of meta-agentive discourse, that is how people talk about the actions of themselves and others, how they attribute responsibility and how they describe their decision-making processes (and those of others), this paper analyses relationships between affect and agency in teacher narratives relating to incidents of conflict that occurred in their classes for migrants and refugees. The multiple accounts of the incidents were gathered initially through a written narrative, then revisited in an individual interview, and subsequently as part of a group discussion with other teachers. The analysis focuses on enduring, interrelated questions of affect and agency, particularly in terms of responsibility, answerability and critical reflexivity. In examining how affective orientations and responses to moments of interaction shape different dimensions of personal agency, it moves emotions from the margins to the centre of theorising of agency. The paper concludes with a discussion of the ways in which affect and agency can be seen as mutually constituted, with affect both enabling and constraining agency, and agency shaping the dynamics of affectivity within and across settings.

References

Kalaja, P., Barcelos, A. M. F., Aro, M., & Ruohotie-Lyhty, M. (2015). Key Issues Relevant to the Studies to Be Reported: Beliefs, Agency and Identity. In Beliefs, Agency and Identity in Foreign Language Learning and Teaching (pp. 8-24). Palgrave Macmillan UK.


How do language learners feel?: The relationship between emotional state and foreign language anxiety

Aysegul Yurtsever (Hacettepe University, Turkey) & Dilara Ozel (Middle East Technical University, Turkey)

The purpose of the present study is to identify high school students’ anxiety and emotional state in the process of learning English as a foreign language. While looking at the emotional status of students, most studies put an emphasis on the students’ motivation or anxiety. As the emotion is an inseparable part of human beings, it cannot be disregarded through the course of learning. The present study gives some perspective on how emotion and language classroom anxiety is related with learning process. To construct this study, 82 participants were included from a vocational/technical public high school in Bursa, Turkey in October 2015. 25 female and 57 male students from 9th to 11th grade levels participated in this study. 20-item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) of Watson et al. (1988) and 33-item Foreign Language Classroom Anxiety Scale (FLCAS) of Horwitz et al. (1986) were used for measuring the emotion and anxiety variables. Through the analysis of the scales, the mean score for FLCAS is found as x773;=3.04, while for positive aspects (PA) of PANAS, it is x773;=3.47, and negative aspects (NA), it is x773;=2.25. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of reliability value for PANAS is found as .79 for PA and .84 for NA, and value is found as .90 for FLCAS. Pearson Correlation value between FLCAS and PA is statistically significant (r= -.348) at the 0.01 level (2-tailed test), and correlation value between FLCAS and NA is statistically significant (r= .203) at 0.05 level (1-tailed test). The results of this study show that while vocational high school students’ levels of anxiety increase, as the results of FLCAS and PA are negatively correlated, their positive emotions decrease. However, due to the positively correlated relation of FLCAS and NA, the students’ emotion and anxiety levels increase at the same time.